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A transportation security system

A transportation security system applying RFID and GPS, United States border security has become a major concern in the recent past. In order to enhance border security, a system must be put in place to allow the tracking of shipments from origin to destination. U.S. Department of Homeland Security requests proposals of cargo transportation security tools for U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). This project is to develop a centralized, internet based security tool which utilizes RFID and GPS technologies to identify drivers and track the load integrity. The system will accomplish the security testing in real-time using the internet and the U.S. Customs’ database (ACE) (Auto-ID Center, 2011). A central database and the interfaces between the database and ACE will be established. After the vehicle is loaded, all openings of the tanker are sealed with RFID tags (E-seals). Then the RFID antenna and tag reader received and transmitted the signal, wirelessly connected with the databases. Also the GPS tracker traced the cargo’s location at any time and reported to the system when necessary. This will serve as testing grounds for the implementation of security measures that can help prevent future terrorist attacks and help in assuming that the goods & products are not compromised while in transit. The system will reduce the labor work of security check to its minimum. It will also help in online billing. This technology’s two main focuses are private companies and the government. It can be used by a company to expedite the shipment and receiving process, streamline the billing and invoicing process, and to automate potential Federal Government container tracking requirements. The government can utilize this technology for shipping container validation, verification of load integrity, potential notification of special scenarios such as late or lost shipments, and as a tool to interact with the U.S. Customs and Border Protection’s ACE database for border control (Auto-ID Center, 2011; AIDC 100, 2011; Battelle, 2003; Lee, 2005). This paper is organized in five sections. Section Two describes the requirement specification and requirement analysis. Section Three elaborates the system design and implementation. Section Four analyzes the marketing potential of this produce. Finally, Section Five provides concluding remarks and the acknowledgements.

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Results analysis in a competing supply chains

The equilibrium results analysis in a competing supply chains with consumer returns, Accepting customer returns has been an important strategy for retailers to attract customers and stimulate demand, in the increasingly competitive market environment. Customer returns policies can enhance customers’ confidence in purchasing goods, stimulating the demand and possibly increasing the retailer’s market share. However, it is also bound to increase the retailers’ and the manufacturers’ processing cost, or may even devaluate the goods and delay sales if the returned goods are resold after some processing. It has been reported that the value of products returned in the United States has exceeded $100 billion per year (Stock et al. 2002). Hence, from an operational standpoint, a natural question emerges: how should two effects of customer returns be traded off to yield greater profits? This paper is related with literatures on customer returns policy. Customer returns impact the decision-makers’ pricing and ordering strategies. In general, they can use full refund policy, which is a 100% money-back-guarantee (MBG) offered to ensure consumer satisfaction, oroffer partial refund policy for customers. Mukhopadhyay and Setoputro (2004) study the optimal retail price and return price of reverse logistic in e-business. William and Gerstner (2006) report that, in their limited sample, 87% of the stores offer full money back guarantee within a “return period”. Chen and Bell (2009) address the simultaneous determination of price and inventory replenishment when customers return product to the firm. They examine the cases when the quantity of returned product was a function of both the quantity sold and the price, in single and multi-period problems, with and without uncertainty in demand. Su (2009) studies the impact of full returns policies and partial returns policies on supply chain performance, and proposes coordination strategies. He demonstrates that full returns isexcessively generous and thus fails to optimize supply chain performance. Competition has become a hot topic in the area of supply chain management. The research of this paper is related with competing supply chains. At present, most studies concentrate on two supply chains for simplicity. There are several factors which cause the competition, such as the quantity of product, price, quality and warranty period and so on. Choi (1991) investigates two manufacturers facing the same retailers competed on price. Bernstein and Fedegruen (2004) examine a supply chain system competing on price and fulfill rate, and demonstrate the existence of Nash equilibrium. Boyaci and Gallego (2004) consider three competition scenarios between the supply chains, including the uncoordinated scenario, the coordinated scenario and the hybrid scenario. They find that coordination is a dominant strategy for both supply chains, but as in the prisoner’s dilemma, both supply chains are often worse off under the coordinated scenario relative to the uncoordinated scenario. Moorthy (1988) studies a model with two identical firms competing on product quality and price, and suggests that cannibalization has different effects on product strategy than competition. Then, Banker (1998) examines the quality and price competition of two supply chains. Recently Chen (2012) investigates the optimal decision of the manufacturer as the Stackelberg leader and two retailers as the followers when the demand is dependent on warranty period. In the competitive market, customers choose which one of supply chains depending on the price to a certain extent. Therefore, the market demand is related with price. In general, the market demand decreases in the retail price. Considering the customer returns, Mukhopadhyay and Setoputro (2005) investigates a single supply chain, where the market demand is seen as a linear function of retail price and return price, and obtain the optimal pricing and return policy to make the profits of the supply chain maximize. However, they ignore the competition environment. So, how will customer returns affect the optimal pricing, ordering and supply chain performance in the competitive environment? To address the question, we consider the demand is related with the retail price and return price of both the supply chain itself and the competing supply chain. Ofek et al. (2011) investigate the impact of product returns on the strategies of multi-channel retailers in duopoly settings. However, we emphasis on this impact in different games (Bertrand-Nash and Stackelberg game). Bertrand-Nash game and Stackelberg game in Game theory have been commonly applied in supply chain management in recent years. Bertrand-Nash game refers to the situation where two firms compete with each other on price and act simultaneously, and then each one chooses the price conditional on the other firm’s price decision. The Stackelberg game refers to the situation where one firm as a leader acts firstly, then the other firm as a follower set price in response to the leader’s price. In this paper, we study how the change of return price impact on the competing supply chain under the conditions of Bertrand-Nash game and Stackelberg game. This paper is different with the above literature. Firstly, we initially consider that the demand is related with the retail price and return price of both the supply chain itself and the competing chain. Secondly, the return price considered in this paper is not limited to the full refund, but it can change from 0 to the retail price.

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The diversified property rights

A new pricing model of China’s parallel rail lines under the diversified property rights , According to the medium-term and long-term railway adjusting project, a rapid growth will last in the nationwide railway network in the next decade. The transport capacity will meet the needsof economic and social development, and the key technology and equipment will reach or close tothe international advanced level. Sucha large scale of investment will inevitably need to further expand the scale of the joint venture in rail construction, and the diversified property rights has become an inevitable trend. In the period of whichthe railways were entirely belonged to the state, the cost of the rail network is seenas internal costs and without independent accounting. While under the background of diversified rail network ownership, the pricing of the rail network affects not only the income and cost of the rail infrastructure enterprises and transportation enterprises, but also the competition and cooperation of the different rail infrastructure companies. Most of all, because the parallel lines which belong to different owners provide similar servicewhichcan be easily substituted, competitions will arise between different producers. It is urgent to solve the problem of how to realize fair competitionfor the national railway and joint venture railway. Based on these preconditions, this paper will study on the pricing modelof usingfees under the situation ofdiversifiedproperty rights. In America, the railroad system is mainly used to undertakethe freight,thusmost of the railway companies are freightcompanies, whichrailway lines have taken upa high proportion of the current U.S. business lines.As a result,theproblem is that the passenger transport companies should pay for the using of the railway which owned by the freight transport company. In determining the cost compensation forrail network, it mainly reflects the idea of subsidy-free pricing. That is, the transport facility users should compensate for the full cost. There is no obligation for the government to offer subsidy to infrastructure construction and its operation. In the actual market, the charge on the cross-road transportation is determined by daily negotiations.In Europeanrail network pricing practice, different methods are adopted in various countries: in the Nordic countries (Sweden, Finland, Denmark, etc.), the rail network charge is based on marginal cost; in Germany and France, it is based on the average cost. Since the marginal cost-based charge is usually lower than that of average cost-based, the Nordic country governments need to provide a lot of subsidyfor the rail network companies.

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Time series and causality analysis

Research on combination forecast of port cargo throughput based on time series and causality analysis, By the impact of the continuing recession of the global economy, the trend of global port cargo throughput growth presenteda significant slow down in 2011. Compared with 14% growth rate in 2010,theglobal port cargo throughput wasonly about 7.3% growth rate in 2011, which reveal a largedecline in global economy. Compared to most ports struggling to survive,the ports in China continued to maintain strong. Chinese port occupiedseven seats among the first ten cargo throughput ports. Shanghai Portand Ningbo-Zhoushan Portare sustained the first and second largest cargo through put portin the whole world.Cargo throughput is very important for a port, it is not only the most basic production index for measuring the port development,but also a significant reference to organize its production, make its development plans and construction. In the meantime, theamount of the cargo throughput may reflect the economic situation and thedevelopment level of the port city. Cargo throughputforecast is asignificant content of the port development strategy.The correctness and rationality of the forecast means much to various aspects in the development of portsincluding the scientific port layout, the scale of investment in infrastructure, business strategy, development strategy and the collection and distribution of integrated transport plan. This paper studies the forecast model of cargo through put of the port, and then takes one port in China as an example to verify the model accuracy, inorder to provide a strong reference to the port cargo throughput forecasts

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